How to reference

In-text citations

When you are using other authors’ ideas and information in your own understanding and in your own words, paraphrasing them, you need to clearly indicate the source where that specific idea/piece of information initially appeared. It is important to know that this is also an important aspect of the academic research and writing.

When citing in text within a paper, use the author/s’ (or editor/s’) last name followed by the publication year.


The digital society is one in which individuals create an attractive narrative that comes to life through posts, images and Instagram stories (Manor, 2019).
Manor (2019) states that people living in the digital society are giving life to appealing narratives by means of photos, posts and Instagram stories.
The digital society has specific traits and Manor (2019) highlights that one of them is individuals creating attractive narrative through posts, images and Instagram stories.

Reference list entry:

Manor, I. (2019) The digitalization of Public Diplomacy. Washington, USA, Palgrave Macmillan.

Note: Some books may not have a city for place of publication, only a country.

Extra note: If it is not the first edition, the edition of the book should be included straight after the title.
White, F. M. (2009) Fluid mechanics. 7th ed. New York, NY, McGraw-Hill.

If a work has two (2) or three (3) authors, include all the names in your citation (it is also acceptable to include only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”, if the work has three authors).


Diplomacy is no longer limited to its initial, conventional subject matter; its application has been extended from eschewing war and maintaining peace to technology, science or the environmental protection, among others (Cooper, Heine & Thakur, 2013).
Cooper et al. (2013) state that diplomacy has suffered a lot of changes in recent times, moving forward from its traditional forms.

Reference list entry:

Cooper, A. F., Heine, J. & Thakur, R. (eds.) (2013) The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford, UK, Oxford Press.

Note: The people were identified as the editors, hence “(eds.)” is a shortened version of editors.

If a work has four (4) or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” each time you refer to this work.


(Ciottone et al., 2006)

Reference list entry:

Please take into account that, although in-text citations can be abbreviated, your reference list should include all the authors’ names.


Ciottone, G., Anderson, P. D., Auf Der Heide, E., Darling, R. G., Jacoby, I., Noji, E. & Suner, S. (2006) Disaster Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA, Elsevier Press.

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g., corporations, associations, government agencies) are integrally written every time they occur in a text citation.


(Ministry of Health, 2007).

Reference list entry:

Ministry of Health. (2007) Looking at long-term residential care in a rest home or hospital: What you need to know. Wellington, New Zealand, Ministry of Health.

There may be occasion to refer to more than one source in relation to similar information. In this case, list the sources in alphabetical order within the brackets, separated by a semicolon.


Resilience is seen as the ability to surpass adversary, fight stress and recover from hardship (Dawson, 2006; Overton, 2005).

Reference list entry:

Dawson, L. (2006) Wise up!: How to be fearless and fulfilled in midlife. Auckland, New Zealand, Random House New Zealand.

Overton, A. (2005) Stress less: Make stress work for you not against you. Auckland, New Zealand, Random House New Zealand.

If you cite different works which have the same author and were written in the same year, differentiate them by assigning lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the publication year. These works should be listed in the reference list alphabetically, by title (excluding ‘A’ or ‘The’).


Eyes are susceptible to melanoma, even though it is rare (Cancer Society of New Zealand, 2013a).
According to the Cancer Society of New Zealand (2013b) the rate of…

Reference list entry:

Cancer Society of New Zealand. (2013a) Ocular melanoma: Information sheet. [Accessed 4th June 2015].

Cancer Society of New Zealand. (2013b) Reducing your cancer risk. [Accessed 4th June 2015].

If you cite a direct quote from a book, article, etc., you have to write the quotation between single quotation marks (as double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech) and mention the page number between round brackets, at the end of quotation.


Simons, Menzies and Matthews (2001) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4).

Where possible, use the original material. However, if the information you wish to use is cited by another author, acknowledge the source you have read, showing it is a secondary source. This demonstrates you have not read the original source, but read about it in a secondary source. Within the text citation, use the words “as cited by” to indicate it as a secondary source. In the reference list, include the author and details of the source you actually read.


According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo (2005) as cited by Holding et al. (2008) most patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs.

Reference list entry:

Holding, M. Y., Saulino, M. F., Overton, E. A., Kornbluth, I. D. & Freedman, M. K. (2008) Interventions in Chronic Pain Management. 1. Update on Important Definitions in Pain Management. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 89(3, Supplement 1), S38–S40.

Harvard Citation Examples:


In-text citation examples:

  • Page specified, author’s name directly cited in text:
    Lutz & Huitt (2010) argue that 'the statistical significance of ...'(p.4).
    Lutz & Huitt argue that ‘the statistical significance of ...’ (2010:p.4).
  • Page not specified, author’s name indirectly cited in text:
    The results were consistent throughout the study (Fernández-Manzanal, Rodríguez-Barreiro & Carrasquer, 2007) …
  • Six authors:
    The study found that ... (Sania et al., 2011).
  • No obvious author:
    A national strategy is creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services (Department of Health, 2009).

Reference examples:

  • Book, one author, multiple editions:
    Hawking, S. W. (1998) A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes. 10th ed. New York, Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.
  • E-book, online only:
    Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.
  • Journal article, three authors, with a DOI:
    Fernández-Manzanal, R., Rodríguez-Barreiro, L. & Carrasquer, J. (2007) Evaluation of environmental attitudes: Analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Science Education. 91(6), 988–1009. doi:10.1002/sce.20218.

For more practical examples, please refer to:
Imperial College London ‒ Harvard Style Guide


There may be texts which you have consulted for your work, but not cited. These can be listed at the end of your assignment in a bibliography.

These items should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list.

If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list.

If you wish to show to your reader the unused research you carried out, the bibliography will show your extra effort.

Editing Note:
All the manuscripts should be easy to read and understand with no writing or grammar error!
The Editors recommends that every manuscript be thoroughly reviewed for grammatical and spelling errors prior to submission.
Many of our authors choose to have their manuscript submitted to an English language editing service to increase the quality of the manuscript. The use of these services is not required and does not guarantee acceptance for publication.